Egypt in a Glance

Egypt is located in north east Africa with a land bridge to Asia formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Total territory of Egypt is approximately 1 million square kilometers. The country borders from the west side Libya, South borders with Sudan, from the north Mediterranean Sea and east side the Red Sea, Palestine & Israel.
According to the 2015 population census, Egypt has a population of over 89 million most of them live along the river. The capital of Egypt is Cairo, located in north of the country, which its population more than 11 million persons. Alexandria is the second largest city in Egypt after Cairo of course, with a population over 4 million persons.
Egypt has been known as one of the longest histories of any other modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world's first nation states. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanization, organized religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.
Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011, longtime President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, a year later after mass protests was overthrown the Muslim Brotherhood. A temporary president has been appointed Presidential elections of the Republic in 2014. and after that the new elections helded and president abd el- fatah el sisi become the president of arab repuplic of egypt.
The Egyptian economy is the second largest economy in the Arab world after Saudi Arabia. The largest sectors that have the largest income in Egypt are agriculture, tourism and industry and GDP grew up by 5% in 2010.
The Egyptian coinage is the Egyptian Pound (LE) and it is divided into 100 Piaster’s (PT).
.Egypt is on the Arabian-Nubian Shield, rich gold deposits are found among this region.
Foreign investments in the petroleum sector and the mining sector in Egypt are controlled by individual disclaimers agreements between the foreign company and the Ministry for Petroleum and Mineral Resources or the Egyptian Mineral Resource Authority (EMRA).
90% of Egyptians are Muslim (mostly Sunni), with 9% Christian and the remaining 1% defined as 'Other'.
Arabic is the official language, although English is widely understood.
Egypt considered one of the oldest civilizations of the world, it established over 5,000 years ago. Based around the River Nile, which annual flood was central to the country's prosperity.
The Pharaohs reigned was  both in Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south, fetching  a culture that has continued to amazed  and inspire people over  the world  with the pyramids, hieroglyphics and numerous  inspiring temples and artifacts.
The Evidence of the Pharaohs and the Romans still exists at the Sukari Gold Mine till now.
  

Flag

Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white).

Kingdom of Egypt (1922–1953)
In 1922, Britain agreed to formally recognize Egyptian independence, but only on the condition that the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, change his title to King. Upon so doing, the now King Fuad issued a Royal Decree formally adopting a new national flag of a white crescent with three white stars on a green background in it.
The three stars symbolized the three component territories of the Kingdom, namely Egypt, Nubia, and Sudan, whilst the green signifies the agricultural nature of the country, other sources suggest that it symbolized the predominant religion of the country, Islam. It has also been suggested that the three stars represented the three religious communities of the country: Muslims, Christians and Jews.

Republic of Egypt (1953–1958)
Following the Revolution of 1952, the Free Officers retained the flag of the Kingdom, but also introduced the Arab Liberation flag of red, white, and black horizontal bands, with the emblem of the Revolution, the Eagle of Saladin, in the center band. This earlier version of the eagle differs somewhat from the one later adopted. Even when the Kingdom was formally abolished by the declaration of the Republic on July 18, 1953, the flag of the Kingdom remained in official use until the formation of the United Arab Republic in 1958.
United Arab Republic (1958–1972)
In 1958, Egypt and Syria united as the United Arab Republic (UAR) and adopted a national flag based on the Arab Liberation flag, with two green stars (representing the two countries of the union) replacing the Eagle of Saladin in the white band. A modified version of the Eagle of Saladin was adopted as the UAR's coat of arms.
Federation of Arab Republics (1972–1984)
Though Syria withdrew from the U.A.R. in 1961, Egypt continued to use the official name of the United Arab Republic until 1971, when the country was renamed officially as the Arab Republic of Egypt. In 1972, when Egypt formed the Federation of Arab Republics along with
Syria, and Libya, the U.A.R. flag (whose design Syria would reuse for their own flag, eight years later) was replaced by a common flag for the Federation, once again based on the Arab Liberation flag. The two green stars in the white band were replaced by the Hawk of Qureish, which had been the coat of arms of Syria prior to the formation of the U.A.R. in 1958. The Hawk of Qureish was also adopted as the Federation's coat of arms. The shade of red used in the red band was lightened slightly.
Arab Republic of Egypt (1984-present)
Whilst the Federation of Arab Republic was dissolved in 1977, Egypt retained the Federation's flag until October 4, 1984, when the black Hawk of Qureish was replaced in the white band (and on the coat of arms) by the Eagle of Saladin (the 1958 version as opposed to the 1952 version). In addition, the shade of red in the red band was restored to the slightly darker shade of the red band in the pre-Federation flag.

Banknotes

Egypt Banknotes The Egyptian pound (Arabic: جنيه مصري‎ Genēh Maṣri Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ɡeˈneː(h) ˈmɑsˤɾi] Code: (EGP) is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh (قرش [ʔeɾʃ]; plural قروش [ʔʊˈɾuːʃ];) Locally, the abbreviation LE or L.E., which stands for livre égyptienne (French for Egyptian pound) is frequently used.
According to the ISO code 4217 refers to the Egyptian pound with these letters EGP. It had been approved version of the Egyptian pound in 1834; it was coined and traded in 1836.
Since the beginning of the gold exchange trading and silver in Egypt and even in 1834, there was no specific monetary unit represents mainly monetary system in Egypt, but was not coined only a small number of currencies, and in 1834 released the Khedive decree on a parliamentary bill for the issuance of a new Egyptian currency based on a bimetallic system (gold and silver), to replace the main currency in circulation replaced by then a Qersh. Under this decree became minting riyals in the form of gold and silver from the preserve of the government and in 1836 was coined the Egyptian pound and put up for trading.
Due to the inability of the Egyptian role population to meet the needs of large and foreign trade transactions, and because of the use of foreign currencies for this purpose has been determined exchange rates by force of law for foreign currencies accepted in the settlement of intra-group transactions, have been fluctuations in the silver value resulted in addition to the adoption of the gold standard by most partners trade to Egypt and in particular the United Kingdom to apply the gold standard on the basis of the status quo, After nearly thirty years of application of bimetallic system.
Qersh  trading continued so that is 1/100 of the pound, divided into 40 "bara ", and in 1885 stopped the issuance of the "bara ", and the Qersh  was divided into ten parts called "ten Qersh ", so the name was changed in 1916 to "milliem ."
Central Bank of Egypt crowned his efforts in the field of currency issue creates a house to print money instead of printed abroad and started printing the different categories in the first of December of 1968 as the bank also prints some Arab currencies in favor of the central banks.
In light of the growing need for banknotes in order to facilitate transactions resulting from the growth of economic activity, especially after the application of the economic opening-up policy, the Central Bank of Egypt issued a large cash categories (100 g 0.50 g 0.20 g) where he issued the 20 gm category in May 1977 and category 100 g in May 1979 and the category of the 50 gm in March 1993.Latest category is 200 pounds, which was launched in 2007.

EGYPTIAN POUND 1924Egyptian Pound 1899
 
 

Egyptian Cuisine

Egyptian cuisine is famous for the private Egyptian taste with some rich influences that enrich it ,  like Turkish influence ,Levantine (Syria) influence  , and Mediterranean countries ( specially Italy )influence.

Many Egyptian foods still exists for thousands of years to the Egyptians such as bread , called in Egyptian language  ( eash balady  ) , beans ( medams  ) and the Egyptians cake feast Eid al-Fitr , colored eggs  in the Easter holiday ... etc .

Egyptian cuisine divided into subset  kitchens where the most of the  Egyptian food  spreads in addition to other special  cuisine such as Alexandrian kitchen, saidi kitchen ,falahy kitchen ,badawi kitchen (touched by the  Arabian gulf cuisine ), and the shaaby kitchen . As for the capital, it is a combination of previous cuisine as well as Italian, Indian cuisine, the Arabian Gulf and Shami. And rarely do we find French cuisine or East Asian cuisine.

Turkish cuisine has been greatly impacted and influenced by Egyptian cuisine, it conferred Egyptian cuisine distinctive flavor in addition to the Egyptian flavor, the most famous Turkish foods are found in Egyptian cuisine like kebabs, and meatballs, Circassian eaters and Shawerma next to sweets such as baklava.
shami desserts  also entered Egyptian cuisine and the eastern sweets as well
 

Attractions

Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world’s most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramids, the Great Sphinx and the ancient temples of Luxor dating back thousands of years. Although focus of most tourist visits remains the great monuments along the Nile, possibilities for Egyptian travel also includes snorkeling and diving along the Red Sea coast. Other tourist attractions in Egypt include camel trips into the mountains of Sinai, tours to remote oases or visits to the Coptic monasteries of the Eastern Desert.
Giza Necropoli
The Pyramids of Giza, situated in the immediate vicinity of the southwestern suburbs of Cairo are the undisputable top attractions in Egypt. The pyramids at Giza were built over the span of three generations – by Khufu, his second reigning son Khafre, and Menkaure. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is an awe-inspiring 139 meters (455 feet) high making it the largest pyramid in Egypt, although nearby Khafre’s Pyramid appears to be larger as it is build at a higher elevation.
Mosque of Ibn Tulun
Built between 876 and 879 AD, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun is one of the oldest mosques in Cairo. It was commissioned by Ahmad ibn Ţūlūn, the Abbassid governor of Egypt. The mosque is constructed around a courtyard, with one covered hall on each of the four sides. The minaret, which features a helical outer staircase similar to that of the famous minaret in Samarra, was probably built several centuries later. Parts of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me were filmed at the Mosque of Ibn Tulun.
Siwa Oasis
Located in the Libyan Desert, Siwa Oasis is one of Egypt’s isolated settlements, with 23,000 people, mostly ethnic Berbers. Located on an old date trade route, Siwa was an oasis vital to the trade route, as the natural springs and shade giving palm trees gave travelers respite from the desert. With the collapse of the Roman Empire, Siwa began its decline. In recent decades tourism has become a vital source of income. Much attention has been given to creating hotels that use local materials and play on local styles.
Egyptian Museum
Home to at least 120,000 items of ancient Egyptian antiquities, the Egyptian Museum is one of Cairo’s top attraction. There are two main floors of the museum, the ground floor and the first floor. On the ground floor there is an extensive collection of papyrus and coins used in by the ancient Egyptians. On the first floor there are artifacts from the final two dynasties of Ancient Egypt and also many artifacts taken from the Valley of the Kings. Highlights include the objects from the Tomb of Tutankhamen and the Royal Mummy Room containing 27 royal mummies from pharaonic times.
Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel is an archaeological site comprising two massive rock-cut temples in southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser. The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses The Great in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari. The complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s, when the temples were threatened by submersion in Lake Nasser, due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam. Abu Simbel remains one of Egypt’s top tourist attractions.
Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings near Luxor is a valley where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the kings and privileged nobles of the New Kingdom. The valley contains 63 tombs and chambers, ranging in size from a simple pit to a complex tomb with over 120 chambers. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. All of the tombs seem have been opened and robbed in antiquity except for the famous tomb of Tutankhamun
Karnak
Although badly ruined, few sites in Egypt are more impressive than Karnak. It is the largest ancient religious site ever built, and represents the combined achievement of many generations of Egyptian builders. The Temple of Karnak actually consists of three main temples, smaller enclosed temples, and several outer temples located about 2.5 kilometers north of Luxor. One of most famous structures of Karnak is the Hypostyle Hall, a hall area of 5,000 m2 (50,000 sq ft) with 134 massive columns arranged in 16 rows.

Events

There are many world class events, festivals and exhibitions which collectively draw in millions of visitors to Egypt each year. Below we take a look at some of the best annual events worth visiting Egypt for.
Cairo Film Festival
One of the top movie events in Africa each year, 
Cairo International Film Festival is a world class and much respected event in the industry and attracts many of the world’s top directors and actors.
Egypt Boat Show
The Egypt International Boat Show draw in thousands of visitors every January to the country and is a fascinating event to attend whether you are interested in buying boats or just enjoy looking and dreaming.
Sharm el Sheikh Half Marathon
If you are interested in sports, the Sharm el Sheikh half marathon takes place annually and is a great run to get involved with.
Cairo International Book Fair
If literature is your passion, then the 
International book fair in Cairo is the leading exhibition of its type in the country each year and well worth attending.
International Fair
One of the best trade events of the year for those of you interested in doing business in or with companies in Egypt is Cairo International Fair.
Fashion Week in Cairo
The International Fashion Show and week attract the words top designers, buyers and models to the city if Cairo annually. This show also gives the fashion world a chance to experience the latest Egyptian designs and styles.

Climate

Egypt essentially has a hot desert climate .The climate is generally extremely dry all over the country except on the northern Mediterranean coast which receives more rainfall in winter. In addition to rarity of rain, extreme heat during summer months is also a general climate feature of Egypt although daytime temperature is obviously more moderated along the northern coast.
The prevailing winds from the Mediterranean Sea continuously blow over the northern coast without the interposition of an eventual mountain range and thus, greatly moderate temperatures throughout the year. Because of this effect, averages low temperature vary from 9.5 °C (49.1 °F) during wintertime to 23 °C (73.4 °F) to summertime and averages high temperatures vary from 17 °C (62.6 °F) during wintertime to 32 °C (89.6 °F) in summertime. Every year, sometime from March to May, an extremely hot, dry and dusty wind blows from the south or the southwest. This wind is called khamasīn. When the flow of dry air continuously blows over vast desert regions, it picks up fine sand and dust particles and finally results in a dusty wind which is generally felt in the periphery of the desert. When this wind blows over Egypt, it causes high temperatures to soar temporarily at dangerous levels, usually over 45 °C (113 °F), the relative humidity levels to drop under 5%. The khamasīn causes sudden, early heat waves and the absolute highest temperature records in Egypt.


Speak Arabic

The main issue in any travel plan that how you will communicate with the culture of the country you go for. When you put Egypt in your plans you must know that you have to learn some Arabic common words to be easily dealing with the Egyptian people.
First, let’s start with simple words

 
Yes Away No La’ /  Please Min fadlak
Thank you Shokran / You are welcome Afwan
I Ana / You Enta (m) , enti (F) / We Ehna
Want A’yez (M) A’yza (F) / Market Su’ / Good Kwayyis
Bad WeheshHello Ahlan Good bye Ma’assalama
Good morning Sabah el kher / Good evening Mesa’elkher
Good night Tesbah ala kher What is your name Ismak eh (M) Esmek eh (F)
Never mind Maalesh / Congratulations Mabruk
How are you? Ezzayak (M) ezzayik (F)How much does this cost? Bikaam?
What is this? Eh daa ?Where is? Feyn ? I would like to buy A’yes ashteree
Do you have Andak (M) andik (F)Too much Keteer / Breakfast Fitar
Lunch ghadaaDinner ashaa / Vegetarian Nabati
Please bring the bill El hesab min fadlakI love you Ana bahebk
Lets go YallaTaxi Taxi / No problem Mafeesh mushkela
 

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